Chapter 7 Energy Use In The Copper Industry
Copper goes through many similar phases of beneficiation. It is converted from ore to copper concentrate, and then into copper anode, and then into copper cathode, which is 99.99 pure. Cathode copper is then processed further into tubes, sheets, wiring and other forms.The ore itself averages less than 0.7 copper in US mines. Copper ore normally is crushed, ground, and concentrated, usually by flotation, to produce a beneficiated ore containing about 25 copper. The ore concentrates are reduced to the metallic state, most often by a pyrometallurgical process.